When approaching the world of sustainable agriculture, which is deeply focused on the connection between people and nature, one may find oneself exploring the basic principles of a biodynamic garden.

What are the basic principles of a biodynamic garden?” is a question often asked by those who wish to embrace a farming approach in harmony with the environment.

To answer your curiosity and help you learn more about this world, in today’s article we will explore the key techniques and concepts needed to start and maintain a biodynamic garden during the different months of the year – from the heat of summer to the cold of winter.

In general, this conscious approach to farming aims to teach a sustainable method of cultivation and, at the same time, establish a deep connection with the natural cycle of the earth, ensuring continuous and environmentally friendly production.

What is a biodynamic vegetable garden?

Let’s start at the beginning: what is a biodynamic vegetable garden?

The term biodynamic garden is used to refer to a cultivation approach based on the principles of biodynamic agriculture; a method that goes beyond simple food production and aims to create a healthy, self-sufficient agricultural ecosystem in harmony with natural forces.

This specific approach is inspired by the theories of Rudolf Steiner, the 20th century Austrian philosopher and scientist, who developed the concept of biodynamics as a way of understanding and working with the life forces of nature.

The biodynamic garden considers the entire agricultural environment as an interconnected living organism. It is based on practices that favour soil fertility, crop diversity and animal welfare. A central element is the concept of biodynamic preparations, which are compounds of natural substances such as herbs, minerals or manure that are used to improve soil and plant health.

At the same time, biodynamics uses lunar and star calendars to determine the best time to sow, plant or harvest crops. Indeed, it is believed that lunar phases influence plants and their development, helping them to grow faster.

Finally, another significant aspect of Biodynamics is the integration of animals into the farming environment. Biodynamic farms often include animals such as cows, chickens or sheep in the garden environment, with the aim of improving soil fertility through grazing and composting.

Biodynamics promotes long-term sustainability by avoiding the use of synthetic chemicals and instead favouring natural disease and pest management practices such as the use of natural compounds and crop rotation.

Why choose biodynamics

What are the advantages of biodynamic gardens over other farming techniques?

Biodynamic gardens offer several advantages over other farming techniques, mainly due to the consideration of agriculture as an integral part of a larger ecosystem.

Below are some of the main advantages of sustainable, biodynamic agriculture that might prompt you to try this approach:

  • Improving soil health:

Biodynamics focuses on increasing soil fertility through the use of natural compounds and biodynamic preparations. This promotes the growth of beneficial microorganisms, improving the structure and overall health of the soil;

  • Long-term sustainability:

Biodynamic gardens minimise the use of harmful chemicals, relying on natural and sustainable pest and disease management practices. As one can imagine, this type of approach helps to reduce environmental impact and contamination of soil, water and air;

  • Respect for natural cycles:

To determine the timing of sowing, planting and harvesting, biodynamics relies on natural rhythms such as lunar and star cycles, respecting nature’s instructions and the biological rhythms of plants;

  • Biodiversity:

Biodynamic gardens promote crop diversity and often include crop rotation and coexistence of various plants. This helps prevent diseases and pests and improves the overall health of the agricultural ecosystem.

Biodynamic vegetable gardens at home with step-by-step guide

If you are wondering how to start a biodynamic vegetable garden and what the ideal starting point is, you have come to exactly the right place.

Let’s try to understand together what the different steps are in creating a biodynamic and natural vegetable garden that lives in harmony with the environment. Let’s start with an explanation of biodynamic cultivation techniques for beginners, suitable for all types of farmers and all types of experience.

How to start a biodynamic vegetable garden 

If you are wondering how to start a biodynamic vegetable garden and what the ideal starting point is, you have come to exactly the right place.

Let’s try to understand together what the different steps are in creating a biodynamic and natural vegetable garden that lives in harmony with the environment. Let’s start with an explanation of biodynamic cultivation techniques for beginners, suitable for all types of farmers and all types of experience.

How to start a biodynamic vegetable garden

In sustainable agriculture, choosing a suitable location for a biodynamic vegetable garden is crucial. To avoid mistakes, make sure the soil is well drained, exposed to the right amount of sunlight (at least 6 to 8 hours of direct natural light per day) and accessible for irrigation.

Once you have chosen a location, before even starting cultivation, it is advisable to carry out a soil analysis to understand its composition and health. This very important step can help establish the needs for soil improvement and define a cultivation plan specifically for your space, ensuring a successful project.

The most widely used cultivation technique in the world of biodynamic gardens is crop rotation – which we have discussed here – which consists of alternating the cultivation locations of individual crops every year/three years. A vegetable garden diary is what you need to keep track of the placement chosen for your vegetables and the progress made year after year.

Finally, before sowing the seeds proper, it is a good idea to take care of soil preparation. According to biodynamic farming techniques, you can improve the quality of the soil through composting, the addition of organic material and the use of biodynamic preparations (which we will discuss in more detail in the following paragraphs).

Which plants are best for a biodynamic vegetable garden?

Now that we understand how to choose the ideal location for one’s biodynamic vegetable garden and how to prepare the soil for sowing, we can turn our attention to crop selection.

In any biodynamic vegetable garden, the choice of plants depends on several factors, such as the local climate, the type of soil and the farming practices adopted. However, there are several plants that generally respond well to this type of cultivation.

Here are some of the most suitable plants for a biodynamic vegetable garden:

  • Companion plants:

So-called ‘companion plants’ benefit from mutual proximity and can help repel pests or improve soil fertility. Common examples include growing beans or peas near tomato plants to improve their growth;

  • Aromatic and medicinal herbs:

Aromatic herbs such as lavender, mint, parsley, sage and basil can successfully repel harmful insects and attract beneficial insects to the garden. In the biodynamic ecosystem, they help other crops to grow safely;

  • Root vegetables:

Carrots, turnips, radishes, beets and potatoes are often grown in biodynamic gardens because they help improve soil structure and diversify the crop;

  • Green leafy vegetables:

Lettuce, spinach, cabbage, chard and other green leafy vegetables are perfect for biodynamic cultivation. In addition to being rich in nutrients, they are also often well adapted to different growing conditions;

  • Climbing plants:

Climbing beans, pumpkins, cucumbers and melons are good choices for biodynamic gardens. They can enrich the soil thanks to their deep roots and offer abundant fruit;

  • Fruit trees:

Some fruit trees (apple, pear, cherry, peach) and shrubs (blackberries, currants and raspberries), can be integrated into biodynamic gardens to add diversity and offer fresh fruit;

  • Plants capable of attracting insects:

Flowers such as marigolds, nasturtiums and chamomile can be grown to attract beneficial insects that contribute to pest control.

Crop diversification is a key practice in the biodynamic garden, especially as it promotes soil health and reduces susceptibility to disease and harmful insects.

Best maintenance practices for a biodynamic garden

Before you start tending your garden, wondering about the maintenance practices of a biodynamic garden is entirely legitimate, all the more so if you are just starting out.

Generally speaking, the maintenance practices of a biodynamic garden focus on promoting the health of the soil, plants and the ecosystem as a whole. Therefore, the different practices involve a range of activities that aim to maintain a natural balance and support biodiversity.

  • Use of biodynamic preparations:

As mentioned at the beginning, the use of biodynamic preparations (composed of natural substances such as herbs, minerals or manure) is very common in biodynamic gardens. The aim is to improve soil fertility and crop vitality;

  • Composting:

In sustainable agriculture, the production and use of high quality compost allows to improve soil structure, increase fertility and provide nutrients to plants;

  • Crop rotation:

Alternating crops on specific plots of land helps prevent soil depletion, reduce plant diseases and promote diversity;

  • Biodynamic calendar:

In the biodynamic garden, it is very common to follow lunar and star cycles to determine the best times to sow, plant and harvest crops, according to the belief that these cycles influence plant growth;

  • intercropping:

Collaboration between crops is very important for biodynamic farming. Therefore, it is advisable to grow several plants together to promote mutuality and protect the vegetables from pests;

  • Natural irrigation:

In biodynamic gardens, there is a tendency to use irrigation systems that minimise water waste, such as drip irrigation or sustainably harvested rainwater;

  • Cleaning and maintenance:

Weed removal, plant disease control and management is necessary in all types of gardens, with the inclusion of the biodynamic garden.

The combination of all these practices makes it possible to cultivate a vegetable garden in perfect harmony with its surroundings, improving soil fertility, plant health and the overall sustainability of the farming system.

Examples of biodynamic preparations

We have often talked about biodynamic preparations, which are natural compounds used to improve soil and plant health, but what exactly are they?

Let’s discover some useful examples together, so that we can more easily identify what is useful in biodynamic and sustainable agriculture.

  • Preparation 500 (Horn Manure):

The so-called ‘Preparation 500’ is one of the best known preparations in biodynamics. It is prepared by placing cow manure inside a cow horn and letting it ferment underground for several months during the winter period. This preparation is then diluted in water and sprayed on the soil to improve soil structure and stimulate microbiological activity;

  • Preparation 501 (Horn Silica):

Preparation 501 is obtained by filling a cow horn with finely ground quartz, then burying it during the summer periods and recovering it in the autumn. After the fermentation process, the compound is diluted and sprayed on plant leaves to promote photosynthesis and increase crop vitality;

  • Preparation 502-507:

These two preparations are composed of specific plant substances such as chamomile, nettle and valerian, and are used to increase soil fertility and prevent/cure plant diseases;

  • Herbal Compost (Preparation 508):

Preparation 508 is a mixture of various medicinal and aromatic herbs that is added to compost to improve its quality and activate decomposition processes, thereby increasing soil fertility.

All these biodynamic preparations are used according to the specific principles and cycles of biodynamics, with the aim of stimulating soil activity and promoting plant growth.


The secrets of biodynamic agriculture can help you increase the productivity of your vegetable garden, giving you juicy, richly flavoured fruit. At the same time, they allow you to get closer to a more conscious and environmentally friendly farming style.

Biodynamic vegetable gardens are perfect to tend with children and the family, discovering the biological cycles of nature and individual plants. Have fun experimenting together, ready for the next planting.

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